پایان نامه های کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه تربیت معلم
گردآوری: هادی حاجِی علی
The norms of censorship in Dubbing Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment the requirement for Degree MA In TS.
By: Hajar Saeed، Advisor: Dr. H. Mollanazar، Supervisor : Dr. F. Asady، ۲۰۰۷، Tehran، p:196
This study approaches the issue of censorship through a Descriptive approach in Translation Studies (DTS). In this study، the notion of norms as the central issue in DTS is addressed. Since censorship as a cultural concept has not been so much taken into consideration in DTS، this study is an attempt towards clarifying the issue of censorship in the mode of dubbing in Audiovisual Translation (AVT). Considering Toury’s normative model، this study is concerned with operational norms applied in AVT censorship. In order to investigate the norms of censorship، six American movies from two different film genres (Melodrama and Detective) were compared with the dubbed versions of the same movies and censorship cases were studied and analyzed. Through such a comparison، the researcher signified the domain and subject matter of censored materials in these movies. These domains included moral issues (sexual relations، obscenity، and bad habits); bad language; religious issues; violence; social problems; and political issues. The statistical measurement revealed that moral issues، and bad language among them، included the most frequent cases of censorship in these movies and the frequency of bad language censorship was much higher in the detective movies.
Pattern of optional and pragmatic explicitation in the translation of two different genre: With particular reference to lexical markers. Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for degree of master Art. In TS.
By: Zeinab Forozesh، Supervisor: Dr. M. Keshvarz، Advisor: Dr. M. R. Ataee، ۲۰۰۸، Tehran، P:122
Translation study is a relatively young academic discipline. One of the important aspects of translation studies is investigating the nature of translation universals and their implications for translator’s performance. Mainly on the basis of contrastive analyses of translation products and their source texts. Explication، as one of universals of translation، conjures up so many disunities that there is no one accepted interpretation. Therefore، the researcher’s main concern has been studying patterns of Optional and Pragmatic explicitations in two different genres of literary and academic textbooks and testing of the Blum-Kulka’s “Explicitation Hypothesis” to investigate its validity in the case of English-Persian language-pair. For this purpose، total frequencies of explicitation are calculated and the results indicate that academic textbooks genre evokes more expliciation than that of literary genre and while academic textbooks genre uses more optional explicitation، literary genre uses more pragmatic explicitation.
Both genres of literary and academic textbooks investigated in the present study. Confirm the “explicitation hypothesis” of Blum Kulka (1985) because Persian translations are more explicit and (hence) longer than their corresponding English source texts، but academic textbooks genre evoke more explicitations and hence a greater rise in explicitness level and in number of words in translation process.
A survey of foreignization and Domestication strategies in English-Persian literary Translation.
By: Robab Montakhab، Supervisor: Dr. H. Mollanazar، Advisor: Dr. M. A. Hosseinee، ۲۰۰۶، Tehran، P:186
Relying on the distinction between two key cultural strategies of Foreignization and Domestication postulated by Venuti (1998a: 240)، this research explores the way in which foreign literature has been portrayed in Persian context. The research questions aim to explore the dominant cultural translation strategy in the dichotomy of Foreignization / Domestication as well as the scope of application of these two strategies in the corpus of the research، which is comprised of three world famous novels، originally written in English، and their Persian translations.
The current product-oriented descriptive translation research is a qualitative attempt to describe and analyse cultural translation strategies in the corpus of the research. The outlet of the research has been developed on the basis of practical models of translation that have been gleaned from a number of studies.
Contrasting each ST-TT pair of the corpus of the research in their entirety and adopting culture as the unit of translation، three hundred and sixty-one culture specific samples were manually collected and systematically classified into eight procedures of domestication strategy including; idiomatic translation، approximation، deletion، cultural equivalent، replacing a coined SL item by familiar TL item، functional equivalent، synonymy and coinage and four procedures of foreignization strategy namely; literal translation، borrowing، extralingual gloss and calque. According to the obtained results، domestication has been introduced as the most pervasive cultural translation strategy applied in the corpus of the research as well as each ST-TT pair.
Study of shift strategies in translation of movie subtitle from English to Persian.
By: Morad Sangargir، Supervisor : Dr. H.Vosoghee، Advisor: Dr. F. Asady
2006، Tehran، P:120
The present study is an attempt to investigate the extent to which shift، as a means of achieving acceptable translation، results in providing the watchers of English language movies with the suitable adapted subtitles in Persian language. This was created by a thorough examination of several best seller films and a laborious survey of the collected samples after hours of transcription.
As noticed throughout the present study، the factors to be considered while dealing with subtitle translation are multifold. In the light of the mentioned theoretical views and the practical data gathering and analysis، it was revealed as a pivotal claim، that in translating dialogs of English speaking movies into Persian subtitles، linguistic shifts are not adequate and a series of other shifts including semiotic، ideological، interlingual and intercultural shifts are crucially needed if the subtitles are to be of a natural quality.
In order to perform an effective intra-and interlingual subtitling، contrastive and comparative analyses were made among the sample subtitles gathered from five best-selling movies. To limit the scope of the analysis to be performed for the sake of better and thorough results، the present research consists only of interlingual translation of subtitles، namely English to Persian domain.
Translation operations employed in data samples from each target movie were classified and compared. The classification statistics indicated that translation shifts had occurred in the interlingual subtitles.
To fulfill the present study، three research questions as mentioned below were addressed:
Subtitling Norms: Comparative study of Iranian and American films.
By: Fatemeh Jabbarzadeh، Supervisor: Dr. H. Vosoghee، Advisor: Dr. H. Mollanazar، ۲۰۰۷، Tehran، P: 149
At the age of digitalization and dominance of media audiovisual translation is no more a marginal area. Subtitling as one of the two forms of audiovisual translation has been the focus of attention in the recent few years. Considering translation as a norm-governed activity، the researcher’s main concern has been studying norms applied in the translation of some challenging concepts including culture-specific items، verbal visual signs and language varieties. By nature، this research is descriptive which is aimed at comparing the Iranian and American subtitled films with the focus on normative patterns governing their translation procedure. At the preliminary stage two questions were asked to find what norms are applied in subtitling of Iranian and American films and to what extent they are different or similar. To do so، five Iranian films (subtitled in English) which were admitted to Cannes festival and five American films (subtitled in English) which won the Oscar prize were chosen to be analyzed. As in the field of translation studies norms are frequently used patterns، through this research some patterns were extracted that were applied by translators in the course of translating challenging concepts. The extracted patterns are: 1. the informal form is replaced by formal one; 2. the social dialect is rendered as it is uttered; 3. the local dialect is identified in brackets; 4. the CS item is replaced with a proper target CS item; 5. the CS item is manipulated to be understandable; 6. the CS item is preserved intact; 7. verbal-visual signs are not subtitled; 8. songs are subtitled; 9. songs are not subtitled. The analysis of the patterns extracted from the instances provided the researcher with the information to find the answers for the research questions. The norms that were applied in subtitling Iranian and American films were “operational” norms and the similarities and differences of the patterns applied by subtitlers were justified by “initial” norms of translation.
The impact of ideology on translator’s lexical choices in translation of political-Journalistic text.
By: Hamid Shamlow، Supervisor: Dr. H. Vosoghee، Advisor: Dr. H. Mollanazar، ۲۰۰۷، Tehran، P:169
This study carries forward the exploration of a relationship between ideology and translation in general and the impact of translator’s ideologically-loaded lexical choices on TL readers. There were two groups of participants in this study. First، the translators of Persian newspapers who translated from English to Persian the pieces of political news. Second، participants of a survey who were asked to respond to a two-part questionnaire. The second group of participants were also professional translators with sufficient experience in the English-language newspapers of Iran. The first part of the questionnaire tested the political knowledge of the respondents. The second part of the questionnaire was based on the performance of the professional translators whose translations were published in the Persian dailies. Participants who scored high in the first part of the questionnaire also did well in diagnosing the ideologically-loaded lexical choices of translators. Pearson’s correlation coefficient strongly supported the strong positive relationship between two variables of political knowledge and diagnosis of manipulated lexical choices. The results and findings of the study strongly suggest the relationship between translator’s ideology and his/her translation of political pieces of news.
The investigation of strategies in translation of idioms and expressions in Dubbed films from English to Persian.
By: Kambiz Khandabee، Supervisor: Dr. H. Vosoghee، Advisor: Dr. F. Farahzad، ۲۰۰۷، Tehran، P:120
This paper deals with the strategies used for translating idioms and fixed expressions existing in two feature films from English to Persian. The main objectives of the research are to analyze the strategies at work in the translation of these idioms and fixed expressions and to find out the extent of correspondence between the source text and the target text. Strategies outlined by peter Newmark and degrees of correspondence suggested by Davies’ are used in this study as benchmarks for determining the translators’ tendencies for translating idioms and fixed expressions، i.e. source text-oriented or target text-oriented. Frequency analyses of the strategies and degrees of correspondence were performed. The analysis revealed that the idioms and fixed expressions are rendered mostly using “cultural substitute” strategy and the highest degrees of correspondence between source text and target text are “syntactic correspondence” and “meaning correspondence”. It was، therefore، found that translators have a tendency toward target text culture.
Study of Nature of Misinterpretation is Persian to English consecutive interpreting by EFL teachers: A case study.
By: Vorya Dastyar ، Superviser: Dr. F. Farhzad، Advisor: Dr. H. Vosoghee، ۲۰۰۷، Tehran، P:168
Interpreting is per se a technical branch of translation studies، on which quite a number of studies have been done worldwide; however it ignited the researcher to study on the concept of “misinterpreting” and its most common causes in the process of interpreting from Persian to English by EFL teachers in universities and language institutes of the city of Sanandaj.
In this regard، ۳۰ cases (20 males، ۱۰ Females) volunteered to sit for an experimental test which was a Persian interview selected by the researcher from Jam-e Jam newspaper (published in January 10th، ۲۰۰۶). The text was read aloud sentence by sentence (the meaningful unit of discourse at least ended by full stop within the text of the interview) by the researcher to the case subjects while they were supposed to write down their interpretations in English after a 15-second stop following each chunk.
Having analyzed the interpretations based on Weber’s criteria for a good interpreter (1984)، the researcher came across a seven-item list of most common causes of misinterpreting in the process of interpreting by EFL teachers.
The results showed that interpreting is not a merely linguistic based process. Extralinguistic factors are also involved in the process of interpreting. Beside these two factors، training in interpreting proves to be absolutely essential، so that full-communication of a certain message is achieved.
Translation of colloquial expressions in English into Persian subtitle films.
By: Hussein Barzegar ، Supervisor : Dr. Babaee، Advisor: Dr. Ataee، ۲۰۰۸، Tehran، P: 146
In this study، efforts have been made to investigate the strategies used in translation of colloquial expressions in English language films subtitled into Persian. The colloquial expressions were classified based on the combination of taxonomies presented by McCrimmon (1963) and Holmes (1992).
The data was gathered from two American comedy films: Midnight Run and Liar Liar which were subtitled into Persian. To gather the required data، the two mentioned films were viewed and their original transcripts were used. Then، the colloquial expressions of the films were detected and with regard to Persian subtitles، the strategies used in translating them were identified.
The analysis of the data gathered in the present study indicated that the following strategies were employed by Persian translators in dealing with colloquial expressions in subtitling process: colloquial translation or transfer، deletion، translating into expression with higher degree of formality، paraphrase، condensation or under-translation، semantic equivalent، addition or over-translation، mistranslation، and translating into expression with lower degree of formality.
Domestication and foreignization in translation of imperial units of measurement and currencies from English to Persian.
By: Solmaz Alizadeh، Supervisor : Dr. A Golie، Advisor: Dr. H Vosogh، ۲۰۰۷، Tehran
Domestication and foreignization are two key issues in any translation project and there are various factors which determine choosing one or the other. In this study the domestication and foreignization dichotomy is investigated in the translation of Imperial units of measurement and currencies from English into Persian. The corpus is ten 19th century novels and their translations into Persian. All samples of Imperial units and currencies are found in the corpus. First the translation procedures applied in their translation have been determined and they are classified as domesticating or foreignizing strategies. The frequency، relative frequency and percentage of applying each procedure and consequently each strategy is determined. It was hypothesized that domestication is the prevalent strategy used by the translators and at the end this hypothesis was partially confirmed with the corresponding results and findings.
Corpus-based study of units of translation in English-Persian Literary translations.
By: Zohreh Shahrestanee، Supervisor: Dr. F. Asady، Advisor: Dr. H. Mollanazar
This study deals with descriptive approach in translation studies. In this study، the notion of “unit of translation” as a challenging issue in Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS) is addressed. Considering this notion from a product-oriented point of view as “the TT unit that can be mapped onto a ST unit” (Baker، ۲۰۰۱: ۲۸۶)، the researcher’s main concern has been to investigate a hierarchy of units of translation (UTs) proposed by Newmark (1991: 66-68) including word، phrase، clause، sentence، and paragraph. At the preliminary stage، two questions were raised to detect the most frequent UT adopted by the professional literary translators، and to explore the relationship between the UTs and the free-literal dichotomy in terms of the occurrence of unit/rank shifts or changes in the UTs in the move from the ST to the TT. To this end، a corpus of three famous English novels (originally written in English by the renowned authors) and two best-selling translations of each (done by professional translators) were chosen to be analyzed. Through a contrastive analysis، two hundred and ten coupled pairs of ST-TT segments were extracted from the first ten pages of each novel and its two translations based on establishing relations of equivalence between the ST-TT segments and adopting sentence as the major unit of analysis. The UTs adopted in the ST-TT segments were then identified. The obtained results of the UT categories demonstrated that the most frequent UT adopted by the professional literary translators was sentence. The unit-shifts applied in the UTs were also signified. The statistical calculation of frequency of unit-shifts in each translator’s UTs proved that the more frequent the occurrence of unit-shifts in the UTs of the translator is، the more deviated is his translation from the formal correspondence، the more different the size of his UTs is، and finally the freer his translation will be.
Key Words: Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS)، units of translation، free-literal dichotomy، unit/rank shifts، equivalence، formal correspondence.
Code-switching in translation of classic English novels.
By: Maliheh Defnok، Supervisor : Dr. Asady، Advisor: Dr Babolee، ۲۰۰۸، Tehran، p: 140
Code-switching __as defined by Auer (1998) as an alternation between two or more languages، dialects، or language registers in the course of discourse between bilingual people __ is considered as one of the controversial issues in translation studies. In the present study، three classic English novels were studied to explore circumstances under which code-switching had been practiced according to Blom and Gumperz’s(1972) situational and metaphorical switching. As the results show، in addition to situational and metaphorical switching which are consequences of bilingualism، authors sometimes switch to another language to demonstrate monolingual speakers. Furthermore، throughout a comparative analysis of these novels and two translated Persian versions of each novel، different strategies employed by translators for translating switched codes were identified. It was also investigated which strategies could produce almost the same effect as the original text on the target-text reader by distributing a questionnaire to a group of 30 B.A. graduates and 10 M.A. students of English Translation. As the results show، those strategies which have been generally employed by translators are not preferred by target-text readers and could not produce the desired effect on them.